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Gross national income (GNI)

GNI in the world regions

GNI in the world regions, bln. $
Area197019801990200020102014
Africa106.0541.9528.3624.81 857.52 350.5
Americas1 345.43 882.37 668.513 361.321 927.125 710.0
Asia505.52 501.75 550.09 309.720 603.326 597.8
Europe1 391.05 110.48 663.29 597.319 820.421 838.4
Oceania52.8202.5366.2463.01 411.21 658.3
World3 400.712 238.822 776.233 356.265 619.578 155.0

GNI in the world regions, % in the world GNI
Area197019801990200020102014
Africa3.14.42.31.92.83.0
Americas39.631.733.740.133.432.9
Asia14.920.424.427.931.434.0
Europe40.941.838.028.830.227.9
Oceania1.61.71.61.42.22.1
World100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

GNI per capita in the world regions, $
Area197019801990200020102014
Africa290.41 135.5837.7768.71 781.72 035.1
Americas2 593.66 277.810 554.915 915.823 259.226 193.6
Asia243.8974.31 733.22 506.24 941.46 115.4
Europe1 976.66 809.412 019.713 183.526 886.229 515.5
Oceania2 699.68 880.813 698.715 048.339 064.143 112.0
World924.02 758.54 291.85 445.29 471.510 758.9

GNI per capita in the world regions, times to global average
Area197019801990200020102014
Africa0.310.410.200.140.190.19
Americas2.82.32.52.92.52.4
Asia0.260.350.400.460.520.57
Europe2.12.52.82.42.82.7
Oceania2.93.23.22.84.14.0
World1.01.01.01.01.01.0

Structure of GNI by the world regions, 2014, %

GNI in top 5 countries

GNI in top 5 countries, bln. $
Area197019801990200020102014
United States1 076.92 852.85 922.910 421.315 121.117 823.2
China92.2303.8393.61 190.65 979.510 396.2
Japan208.71 086.93 123.64 791.35 646.64 788.4
Germany217.3955.81 793.81 937.03 484.43 956.9
United Kingdom131.9559.21 039.41 565.72 434.82 934.4
World3 400.712 238.822 776.233 356.265 619.578 155.0

GNI in top 5 countries, % in the world GNI
Area197019801990200020102014
United States31.723.326.031.223.022.8
China2.72.51.73.69.113.3
Japan6.18.913.714.48.66.1
Germany6.47.87.95.85.35.1
United Kingdom3.94.64.64.73.73.8
Others49.252.946.140.350.248.9
World100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

GNI per capita in top 5 countries, $
Area197019801990200020102014
United States5 140.712 425.723 424.836 838.048 797.255 793.7
China114.0310.6340.9937.54 459.17 591.6
Japan2 012.29 377.125 550.738 112.744 349.837 764.8
Germany2 772.712 228.322 718.223 651.943 319.549 065.0
United Kingdom2 372.19 946.118 199.926 597.538 822.045 614.1
World924.02 758.54 291.85 445.29 471.510 758.9

GNI per capita in top 5 countries, times to global average
Area197019801990200020102014
United States5.64.55.56.85.25.2
China0.120.110.0790.170.470.71
Japan2.23.46.07.04.73.5
Germany3.04.45.34.34.64.6
United Kingdom2.63.64.24.94.14.2
World1.01.01.01.01.01.0

Kushnir's square in GNI

Kushnir's square (GNI, 2014)size (share in the world GNI)Total
< 0.1%0.1-1%1-10%10+%
Small economiesAverages economiesRegional leadersGlobal leaders
quality (GNI per capita, times to global average)10+Hi-developed    0%
1-10Developed 70.8%
0.1-1Developing 27.9%
< 0.1Least developed    0.5%
Total3.4%18.1%41.7%36.1%100%

GNI in regional organizations

GNI in regional organizations, bln. $
Area197019801990200020102014
African Union97.9515.2489.6578.51 733.22 206.1
APEC1 621.85 270.612 001.019 928.335 827.244 031.6
APTA169.9571.31 026.22 266.98 905.014 115.6
ASEAN37.7206.4370.6617.11 958.32 487.0
CIS734.5326.31 897.22 333.9
G71 987.26 913.514 888.821 967.033 091.736 285.6
G202 364.78 545.818 192.827 188.450 565.160 197.0
European Union 15829.93 723.57 253.88 385.115 715.417 094.9
European Union 25864.13 808.77 462.18 742.516 736.418 227.3
Euro area644.32 957.45 894.06 477.612 699.513 499.4
LAIA164.3702.41 085.62 038.74 877.35 697.8
League of Arab States40.5439.1449.6723.92 079.32 786.4
NAFTA1 206.93 343.76 777.411 774.217 742.420 831.7
NATO2 019.56 836.213 743.319 725.733 528.637 903.8
OECD2 208.87 744.715 525.622 426.739 084.244 560.0
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation150.81 042.41 204.31 664.15 339.96 814.0
OPEC72.2720.2549.0787.12 748.83 657.7
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation92.2303.81 012.31 475.57 636.712 453.5
Trans-Pacific Partnership1 490.24 716.810 410.917 362.625 707.928 487.8
World3 400.712 238.822 776.233 356.265 619.578 155.0

GNI in regional organizations, % in the world GNI
Area197019801990200020102014
African Union2.94.22.11.72.62.8
APEC47.743.152.759.754.656.3
APTA5.04.74.56.813.618.1
ASEAN1.11.71.61.93.03.2
CIS3.20.982.93.0
G758.456.565.465.950.446.4
G2069.569.879.981.577.177.0
European Union 1524.430.431.825.123.921.9
European Union 2525.431.132.826.225.523.3
Euro area18.924.225.919.419.417.3
LAIA4.85.74.86.17.47.3
League of Arab States1.23.62.02.23.23.6
NAFTA35.527.329.835.327.026.7
NATO59.455.960.359.151.148.5
OECD65.063.368.267.259.657.0
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation4.48.55.35.08.18.7
OPEC2.15.92.42.44.24.7
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation2.72.54.44.411.615.9
Trans-Pacific Partnership43.838.545.752.139.236.5
World100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

GNI per capita in regional organizations, $
Area197019801990200020102014
African Union287.71 154.1829.3757.11 759.82 018.6
APEC1 069.42 890.85 241.37 841.313 105.515 659.3
APTA115.3315.2467.3897.73 181.44 865.5
ASEAN134.0576.5831.61 174.83 287.73 979.0
CIS2 889.71 299.67 624.09 281.5
G73 461.011 221.922 753.731 449.744 770.148 192.5
G201 014.23 058.85 280.56 988.611 820.913 600.6
European Union 152 427.010 438.619 817.422 122.639 528.742 584.4
European Union 252 238.69 425.816 917.619 268.835 465.038 333.0
Euro area2 349.510 273.118 929.220 137.937 890.140 085.5
LAIA648.92 189.62 763.64 409.69 281.210 369.5
League of Arab States319.32 570.11 971.02 509.45 720.07 244.8
NAFTA4 265.410 338.118 511.328 275.738 352.043 361.2
NATO3 046.39 553.017 293.623 317.037 280.641 295.9
OECD2 858.89 095.616 408.721 800.835 100.838 923.2
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation260.71 383.01 160.41 292.13 395.44 026.1
OPEC508.13 739.22 099.42 400.16 651.88 077.8
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation114.0310.6750.41 005.84 954.97 912.8
Trans-Pacific Partnership3 092.98 474.216 433.324 313.132 756.835 069.7
World924.02 758.54 291.85 445.29 471.510 758.9

GNI per capita in regional organizations, times to global average
Area197019801990200020102014
African Union0.310.420.190.140.190.19
APEC1.21.01.21.41.41.5
APTA0.120.110.110.160.340.45
ASEAN0.150.210.190.220.350.37
CIS0.670.240.800.86
G73.74.15.35.84.74.5
G201.11.11.21.31.21.3
European Union 152.63.84.64.14.24.0
European Union 252.43.43.93.53.73.6
Euro area2.53.74.43.74.03.7
LAIA0.700.790.640.810.980.96
League of Arab States0.350.930.460.460.600.67
NAFTA4.63.74.35.24.04.0
NATO3.33.54.04.33.93.8
OECD3.13.33.84.03.73.6
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation0.280.500.270.240.360.37
OPEC0.551.40.490.440.700.75
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation0.120.110.170.180.520.74
Trans-Pacific Partnership3.33.13.84.53.53.3
World1.01.01.01.01.01.0

Methodology of GNI

2.143 Primary incomes generated in the production activity of resident producer units are distributed mostly to other resident institutional units; however, part of them may go to non-resident units. Symmetrically, some primary incomes generated in the rest of the world may come from resident units. This leads to the definition and measurement of gross national income (GNI). GNI is equal to GDP less primary incomes payable to non-resident units plus primary incomes receivable from non-resident units. In other words, GNI is equal to GDP less taxes (less subsidies) on production and imports, compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world. Thus GNI is the sum of gross primary incomes receivable by resident institutional units or sectors. In contrast to GDP, GNI is not a concept of value added, but a concept of income.

Source: The System of National Accounts, 2008 (2008 SNA)

© Ivan Kushnir


E-book. World macroeconomic research, 1970-2014